Yes, public health blogging makes a difference

I began this blog in March 2012 to share my perspectives on public health issues and to integrate multiple disciplines and perspectives that the traditional public health field either is not doing or does not want to do–such as speaking with moral clarity on the public health threat posed by firearms in the United States.

I took this screen snapshot of my dashboard on Nov. 29, 2014.

I took this screen snapshot of my dashboard on Nov. 29, 2014.

My blog has had nearly 38,000 page views as of late November 2014. This means this web site is getting more visibility and traffic than many published papers by academic researchers. Many of their peer-reviewed articles will never be seen because they are behind a firewall run by for-profit companies that prevents publicly-financed research from reaching policy-makers, the popular media, and the public who pays for the research.

To celebrate the eventual “fall of the wall,” meaning the for-profit firewall that is stifling innovation and blocking research from having greater value to the public, I am going to highlight a few of my more popular public-health articles based on visitors and page views.

Embrace change and get cracking

I think it is time to start dismantling the firewall and to start telling public health’s story with more traditional storytelling techniques, with more creativity that bridges disciplines, and with an eye on upstream advocacy.

The articles I shared above do not follow the traditional model of public health writing or practice, and some challenge the current U.S. models as broken and even morally bankrupt, particularly regarding the historic deathly silence by public health leaders at the local and national level and at universities in the face of firearms-related violence in the United States.

So if you landed on this page and find yourself within the claustrophobic walls of academia as a student, grad student, or faculty member, and you have not been exposed by your peers or the faculty to the value of blogging, here 38 reasons why you need to get off your freaking butt right now and get to work. If you work in a public health office and your office is not actively using social media because of out touch managers and your office is not advocating with lawmakers, you need to show leadership and become the change you want to see and not wait for others to do it for you.

Yes, it is your job to challenge the current model that is underfunded and start getting your research and ideas into circulation.

Yes, it is time to think creatively and innovate and challenge the old guard whose ways are failing to make a greater impact.

My list of blogs/articles may be updated as I continue to publish more of them. I am now using this blog to discuss organizational behavior, multi-disciplinary research, and stories based on personal and professional experiences as the starting point for discussing larger issues. I hope you come back from time to time to check out my articles. Thanks.

(Note, I am publishing this blog post as both a page and post on my blog.)

Viktor Frankl and the simple secrets to living a meaningful life

Viktor Frankl Photo

This photo of Viktor Frankl was taken shortly after his liberation from the Nazis in 1945.

Renowned psychiatrist, philosopher, and writer Viktor Frankl stands as a giant among 20th century thinkers. The Austrian-born Frankl (b. 1905, d. 1997) was a psychiatrist whose life was transformed by his experiences as a Jewish prisoner who survived the Holocaust and internment at the Auschwitz death camp and three other German concentration camps.

With the exception of a sister, all of his immediate and extended family and his beloved wife were murdered by the Nazis. From the aftermath of this horrific experience, he embarked on a life’s work that provided deceptively simple but remarkably clear ideas that literally provide a framework on how all people can live meaningful lives.

Frankl survived his brutal internment, which should have killed him, by seeing a purpose in his ugly reality and by taking control of his responses to that experience with positive actions and a mental attitude that ensured his survival and also his outlook on life and his fellow man and woman.

His simple ideas offer no shortcuts, and they uncomfortably place each person in control of how they choose to respond to life’s challenges, even ones as unforgiving as genocide and mass murder.

Frankl proposes all of us are motivated to seek a higher purpose, even when our circumstances are as cruel as a death camp surrounded by barbed wire and vicious men armed with machine guns.

Frankl writes: “Man’s search for meaning is the primary motivation in his life not a ‘secondary rationalization’ of instinctual drives. This meaning is unique and specific in that it must and can be fulfilled by him alone… .” More than pleasure, more than material things, meaning motivates us all. It is our purpose for being.

Man’s Search for Meaning, a book that changed modern thinking

Cover Man's Search for Meaning

Viktor Frank’s seminal 1946 Holocaust memoir, Man’s Search for Meaning, has been translated into more than 20 languages, has sold more than 10 million copies, and is considered one of the most influential books among American book readers.

Frankl published those principles in his highly acclaimed and influential 1946 memoir, Man’s Search from Meaning, which today has been translated in more than 20 languages and has sold more than 10 million copies. It is considered among the most influential books in the United States, according to a Library of Congress survey.

He originally developed the framework for his sparse set of powerful ideas when he was practicing psychiatry in Vienna before the Nazi occupation and saw how he could help patients overcome their suffering by making them aware of their life’s calling. His treatise, stashed in his coat, was literally lost when he was imprisoned.

Later in his life, when he had achieved global recognition because of the widespread popularity of his bestseller, he was asked by a university student: “…so this is your meaning in life… to help others find meaning in theirs.” His reply was as clear and direct as the theory behind his therapy, “That was it, exactly. Those are the very words I had written.”

As one writer influenced by Frankl, Genrich Krasko, points out, Frankl’s ideas are more prescient today, given millions have no meaning in their lives, particularly in affluent societies: “Viktor Frankl did not consider himself a prophet. But how else but prophetic would one call Frankl’s greatest accomplishment: over 50 years ago he identified the societal sickness that already then was haunting the world, and now has become pandemic? This ‘sickness’ is the loss of meaning in people’s lives.”

Logotherapy, Frankl’s foundational theory

Frankl called his system logotherapy, derived from the Greek word “logos,” or “meaning.” It has been called existential analysis, which may over-simplify its scope. The philosophy and medical practice boils down to providing treatment through the search for meaning in one’s life. Its utterly basic but ultimately powerful foundational ideas are easily summarized:

  • Life has meaning in all circumstances, even terrible ones.
  • Our primary motivation in living is finding our meaning in life.
  • We find our meaning in what we do, what we experience, and in our actions we choose to take when faced with a situation of unchangeable suffering.

Frankl notes, “Most important is the third avenue to meaning in life: even the helpless victim of a hopeless situation facing a fate he cannot change, may rise above himself, may grown beyond himself, and by so doing change himself. He may turn a personal tragedy into triumph.”

This latter point is particularly poignant, as it calls out the role that adversity can have in shaping us and our destinies and improving our character and our life’s narrative. In short, no matter what circumstances we find ourselves, so long as we have a purpose, we can find fulfillment. What’s more, we are fulfilled by right action and by “doing,” not through short-term pleasure or narcissistic pursuits.

Frankl argues that meaning can be found in meaningful, loving relationships, in addition to finding it through purposeful work or deeds. In fact, it was the strong love of his first wife that kept him alive amid the unspeakable horrors of Auschwitz. He felt her presence in his heart and it literally let him live when others around him perished.

Frankl’s core ideas at odds with more ‘accepted’ health and mental health paradigms

Frankl’s ideas collide with behaviorist models, which show that conditioning will determine one’s responses—the proverbial Pavlovian dog or Skinnerian lab rat. By contrast, through his own experiences and those he observed treating depressed and suicidal patients before and after the war in Vienna, Frankl claims that “everything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms—to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances.”

When faced with a situation, we all chose. But our power is defined by our actions. “Between stimulus and response, there is a space,” he claims. “In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and our freedom.”

The concept of personal choice conflicts with extensive research that clearly documents how one’s environment, race, socioeconomic status, and more—the so-called social determinants of health (SDOHs)—shape one’s life more than one’s individualistic decisions.

A model explaining the social determinants of health.

A model explaining the social determinants of health.

Viktor Frank photo 1947

This photo of Viktor Frankl was taken two years after his liberation from the Nazis, when he returned to psychiatric practice to help people through his principles called logotherapy.

For two years, while earning my MPH at the University of Washington School of Public Health from 2010 to 2012, I found myself frequently and painfully at odds with current research and literally thousands of studies that proved to me that SDOHs will impact our lives in the most profound ways.

Yet I found the field and its most ardent practitioners lacking an explanation that showed the real power people have in controlling their personal outcomes. This is something that the public health field and my faculty sharply criticized by showing the medical model, which tells persons to control their health, has largely failed to promote wider population health metrics.

While I do embrace a “policy and systems” approach, I even more strongly believe that every person has the ability to make life-changing choices, every minute of every day—from the food they put in their mouth, to devices they watch daily, to the people they associate with, to the jobs they take or do not take (however awful often), to the way they manage their personal emotions. They have choices, and often they are cruel and brutally unfair choices, which often favor the privileged.

Frankl was famous for meeting with some patients, asking them to reflect on finding meaning in their lives over their entire life span, and providing the mental treatment they needed to take control of their lives without future interventions or drugs, which predominates the American model of mental health treatment. Some of his patients only required one session, and they could resolve to deal with life’s circumstances without any further intervention.

This is a radically and in fact dangerous model that challenges how the United States is grappling with mental illness nationally, though many practitioners use Frankl in their work. One psychiatrist I tweeted with wrote me back saying, “I’m far from the only one [using Frankl]! There’s a large humanistic community in the counselling/psychotherapy world.”

Frankl’s ideas continue to be studied, refuted, debated, and argued by learned and well-intentioned academics, which I think would amuse Frankl. He was more interested in the practical work of day-to-day living and less with becoming the subject of a cult following. As one commentator I saw in a documentary who knew Frankl noted, Frankl was not interested in fame, otherwise he would be more famous today.

Paul Wong is one of many academics who have analyzed the ideas of logotherapy and mapped them in published work.

Paul Wong is one of many academics who have analyzed the ideas of logotherapy and mapped them in published work.

Here is just one example showing how theorists explain logotheraphy; see the table by Paul Wong on life fulfillment and having an ideal life.

Why Frankl’s thinking profoundly inspired me and thousands of others

For more than three decades, I have been wrestling with the concept of personal responsibility and the influence of our environment and systems that impact our destinies. Such factors include one’s family, country, religion, income, the ecosystem, our diet, and political and economic forces, among others. I also have been fascinated by examples of people choosing hard paths in dire circumstances as the metaphor that defines successful individuals’ life narratives.

In Frankl’s death camp reality, this ultimately boiled down to choosing to be good, and helping fellow prisoners, or choosing to partake in evil, which many prisoners did as brutal prisoner guards called kapos. No one gets a free pass in this model, and all people of all groups, can be one or the other, Frankl says.

“In the concentration camps, for example, in this living laboratory and on this testing ground, we watched and witnessed some of our comrades behave like swine while others behaved like saints,” writes Frankl. “Man has both potentialities within himself; which one is actualized depends on decisions but not on conditions.”

I had not been able to order these two lines of thinking into a coherent set of principles, as Frankl so perfectly did. When I stumbled on him quite by accident or maybe design this summer, while reading books by Robert Greene and even management guru Stephen Covey, I had that most rewarding and delicious feeling of “aha.” It was more like, “Wow, what the hell was that!”

It felt like a thunderclap. I almost reeled from the sensation.

I then began to tell every single person I know about Frankl, and I learned many of my colleagues had already read him. I felt robbed not one teacher or academic, at three respected universities I attended, had covered or even mentioned Frankl, when his ideas are foundational to our understanding of the fields of psychology, public health, business, organizational behavior, religion, and the humanities in the 21st century.

Frankl deserves vastly more attention then he is given by health, mental health, and social activist thinkers. That is a shame too, because as a speaker, Frankl brimmed with enthusiasm and could convey complex ideas in the simplest ways to reach his audience. Watch his presentation at the University of Toronto–a brilliant performance.

Frankl’s ideas matter to each of us, in everyday life

Photo courtesy of PBS, showing a pensive and thoughtful Viktor Frankl (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/questionofgod/voices/frankl.html)

Photo courtesy of PBS, showing a pensive and thoughtful Viktor Frankl. Click on the photo for a link to the web site.

One my most satisfying feelings is discovering that one’s personal life experiences and ideas on issues as big as the meaning of life also resonate profoundly with millions of others—those who have read his work. Even more gratifying is discovering that the core principles to living life amid hard choices can be grounded in principles that can help everyone, even in the most dire of personal experiences.

My own travels in the developing world stand out for me. I met countless people facing vastly more painful, difficult, challenging lives than I have faced. Yet, the wonderful people I met had nothing but smiles and treated me with genuine sincerity. I had to ask myself, why is it that so many people are clearly content when their surroundings indicate they should be experiencing utter despair and even violent rage. Why is there kindness in their hearts and peace with their reality.

Photo of Coptic Youth, Egypt by Rudy Owens

These young men, all Copts, a persecuted minority, highlight for me the depth of goodness one finds in the world, even when many have no material foundation that suggests they should be happy.

I understood at all levels what I was experiencing. But Frankl’s framework ties this rich set of personal experiences to all of us, and to larger existential ideas of what we are meant to do with our time. For Frankl, the answer is just doing what life needs us to do. As Frankl wrote nearly 70 years ago, “Life ultimately means taking responsibility to find the right answer to its problems and to fulfill the task which it constantly sets for each individual.”

With that point, I now must ask you, the reader, What are you doing with your life, and are you doing what you are being asked to do?

You cannot escape this question, and if you avoid it, you will always have the pain and emptiness of not listening to your own calling. The choice of course is your own.

The wisdom of adversity and misfortune

“But despite what you may think, good luck is more dangerous than bad luck. Bad luck teaches valuable lessons in patience, timing, and the need to be prepared for the worst; good luck deludes you into the opposite lesson, making you think your brilliance will carry you through. Your fortune will inevitably turn, and when it does you will be completely unprepared.” … Robert Greene, The 48 Laws of Power

During a recent outing to one of Seattle’s many brewpubs, I swapped stories with my good friend about hospital visits. Most people I know have had them, and a rarefied few have not. In my case, I have been hospitalized at least a half-dozen times, mostly for stitches, but also worse.

I told my friend some of my greatest learning moments came with contemplation lying in a hospital bed. There is nothing like pain one feels in the ugliness of a hospital room to focus the mind and to allow one to make sense of all the things that preceded the unforgettable trigger moments.

South African born psychiatrist and author Norman E. Rosenthal

South African born psychiatrist and author Norman E. Rosenthal

South African born psychiatrist Norman E. Rosenthal has written a book on this theme called the Gift of Adversity. Thinking back on his own Apartheid-era life, surviving a near fatal stabbing, and his professional experiences, Rosenthal argues that innovation, resilience, and understanding emerge  from our own adverse experiences and by gaining wisdom from those hard times. Writ large, economists will even refer to collective behaviors among entire generations, such as young people who came into adulthood in the Depression era, and whose lifelong buying patterns and decisions to live more austerely can be quantitatively measured.

Using examples of individuals who endured suffering yet who came out stronger, Rosenthal sees opportunity in these struggles for all of us. “Well, when adversity comes, the last word that comes to mind is gift, because it just looks like an unmitigated disaster. But, how many times have you heard a friend or somebody say, ‘You know, at the time, it seemed terrible, but in retrospect, it was for the best.’ … The first step is really to accept that the adversity has happened. … We have to somehow come to terms that it really has happened. Then, we have to analyze the situation, every adversity is different, and respond accordingly.”

My own experiences mirrored these points, almost too perfectly. Both involved small misfortunes with lifelong rewards.

Lesson No. 1: When I was 14 and not fully mature, I did something that was likely one of the dumbest acts of my life. I will not say exactly what it was, but it substantially disrupted life at my often-violent and chaotic junior high school, in University City, Mo. I was soon on my way for an expulsion as the second-to-last-day of classes was ending in June 1979.

Coming back to campus I encountered four guys who I did not know. At least three were students. The other may have been a high school student. He was older, a guy with a cast. They were tough. I was not. They were experienced in the art of violence. I had few such fighting skills. They were skillful manipulators, and I fell for small talk that drew me close. It turns out one of them had been blamed for the incident. That is the story I heard second-hand, and the group was bent on physical vengeance.

I do not remember everything that happened, but I do remember feeling a floating feeling. I was cold-cocked in the face by one of the four wearing a cast. I was bleeding profusely from a cut on my eyelid and could not see out of my left eye. I was lying on the ground not sure what had happened. I felt warm blood on my hand.

I remember the four of them mocking me and telling me if I was happy now about having the heat fall on them. It was a perfect example of the violence I had witnessed many times before at this school, often with the tense black-white racial undertones, and I am sure that tension influenced this assault too. They walked away, never having been arrested, never having been questioned by anyone, ever.

Insult piled upon injury. I had to go back to school, get kicked out by a furious principal who did not express any concern about me having just been assaulted on school grounds, and then have teachers sign my expulsion papers. One thug laughed at me in the hall and yelled, “What happened to you.” I shot back, in my un-masculine voice, “What do you think happened.” He turned cold, came close, and threatened, “Yo, want another one, mother fucker.” Luckily I walked away from that one.

I stayed at this hospital for nearly a week after I was assaulted and nearly blinded in my left eye, which proved to be a great learning moment.

I stayed at this hospital for nearly a week after I was assaulted and nearly blinded in my left eye, which proved to be a great learning moment.

My mom, a new teacher that year in the same district, took me to the emergency room in Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, where I was put into a shared room and monitored. My eye pressure was dangerously high because vessels were ruptured from blunt trauma, and I was at high risk of blindness in my left eye. The doctors prescribed having both eyes covered for more than a week to keep them from moving, lying in a bed, and having no physical activity.

I remember the slow passage of time and mostly the sounds of the ward, the voice of my few visitors, and the stories of a young man next to me going into eye surgery, not sure what would happen.

The school principal came once, talked briefly, and somehow waived my punishment as a result of being a violent crime victim. He never told me or my mom what the school or school district had done to investigate the assault. My mom told me years later she was too afraid as a new teacher to make waves with her new employer. No police officer ever took my story. The whole thing was wiped under the rug.

Lying there, in a flimsy hospital gown, feeling like needles were piercing my eyeball, I came to the realization of how precious my sight really was, and how close I had flirted with genuine disaster.

Lesson Learned: This was the clearest teaching moment ever in my life. Never, ever, do stupid things. Such acts have unforeseen consequences, particularly things that put you in a weak position with uncaring bureaucracies and with men who use violence to settle a score. If you act badly and unwisely without thinking, the sword of blunt justice will be swift, and it will be lasting. Also, without any allies or friends, one can be quickly abandoned by any organization if you are perceived as lacking advocacy skills and are vulnerable. So, do not present yourself as weak or easily exploited. Finally, and most importantly, always know exactly who you are dealing with when you confront strangers in strange circumstances. Trust your instincts, and keep your wits about you, always. Your instincts will always know who is a friend and who is a foe. Worry about bruised feelings later, from a safe distance.

It took me a whole summer to recover, and I could not engage in full physical activities for three months. I wore an eye patch half the summer. Decades later, I still have damage to the back of my eye that my most recent visit to an optometrist confirmed. He could see the damaged areas after my pupil was dilated.

Lesson No. 2: In my last month of my journalism master’s program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in July 1993, I was playing pickup soccer at the UNC-CH campus. It was supposed to be friendly, but of course men are fiercely competitive. A guy who I was marking intentionally head-butted me with the back of his head into my face. He broke my nose instantly, and it began to bleed profusely. I walked myself to the UNC-CH hospital, as it was close by.

This is how I looked shortly after my nose was broken and then reset in July 1993.

This is how I looked shortly after my nose was broken and then reset in July 1993.

I waited about three hours for a resident to attend to my situation. The plastic-surgeon-to-be had been up about 28 hours and was in a terrible mood. After shooting cocaine painkillers into my nasal cavity area, he stuck a metal rod up my nose and proceeded to move things back into place. I recall screaming like a wild animal so loudly that it clearly disrupted patients in the entire wing. The exhausted and overworked resident was furious with my uncooperativeness, as he called it. He stuck the rod back in and went back to work.

A nurse came in and saw the procedure. She simply held my hand. I stopped crying. I instantly calmed down. My level of pain subsided dramatically. The compassionate act of human touch proved more powerful than any medicine. After the resident stuffed both of my nasal passages with some sort of medical gauze, I thanked the nurse. She gave me a caring look that said, everything’s going to be OK.

That night I wrote a poem about the war in Bosnia, then raging at the time, and I put my small problem into a larger perspective of suffering felt more severely by others around the world.

Lesson Learned: Human compassion and human touch are among the most powerful healing agents in the world, often more powerful than medicine and actions of medical specialists. The mind, when it needs to, can calm down and can process a stressful situation. Set the calming effect in motion, and show mindfulness of yourself and others who may be less fortunate.

Comment: Author Rosenthal, who sees the importance of adversity, profiles the late Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist as well as a Holocaust survivor Viktor Frankl. He was the only member of his family to survive the genocide, staying in four different camps, and went on to receive acclaim for his widely read treatise called Man’s Search for Meaning, original published in German in 1946 Trotzdem Ja Zum Leben Sagen: Ein Psychologe erlebt das Konzentrationslager.

Holocaust survivor, psychiatrist, and author Viktor Frankl

Holocaust survivor, psychiatrist, and author Viktor Frankl

Frankl’s own horrific experience taught fellow psychiatrist Rosenthal critical lessons also, that one can find meaning even in the midst of terrible adversity and that no single group of people is pure good or evil. Both types of people can be found in all groups, everywhere.

“It did not really matter what we expected from life, but rather what life expected from us,” wrote Frankl. “Our answer must consist, not in talk and meditation, but in right action and in right conduct. Life ultimately means taking the responsibility to find the right answer to its problems and to fulfill the tasks which it constantly sets for each individual.”

In no way did anything I experience come close to the challenges Frankl and other tough and lucky individuals have endured from such crimes.

I do know that in my case, my invaluable teachers came disguised as sterile wards and rooms of hospitals, giving me opportunities to contemplate larger truths. In one case, I created my own folly but could use my intellect to evaluate my mistakes. I also benefitted from being in hospitals, where I seldom felt kindness and felt great stress and also fear. This was clearly a place to avoid at all costs. I was doubly motivated to stay healthy—mind, body, and soul.

The wisdom I gained at those small junctures far exceeded anything I received in any university setting. As Robert Greene’s opening quote aptly notes, our bad luck prepares us for misfortune and gives us the strategies to overcome the roadblocks we build for ourselves or encounter from others. Those who are blessed mostly by good luck will eventually see their luck change, and when they do, they will be overtaken by those who have adapted and learned already.

So be thankful for those learning moments. They are your teachers, and you profit immensely by employing that knowledge wisely in the future.

Robert Greene’s insights into power and mastery

Robert Greene, popular author

Popular author Robert Greene

How is it that a classics major, a guy who reportedly held 80 jobs, and a not-so-successful screenwriter became the big man of big ideas in a span of 15 years, now doing lectures at places like Google? Today, writer Robert Greene is known by everyone from corporate CEOs, to rappers like 50 Cent and Jay Z, and even to retired dictators like Fidel Castro.

Many people are most familiar with Greene’s seminal 1998 work, The 48 Laws of Power. The book is a compendium of principles of success for the modern-day prince and even low-level office worker on how to succeed. Some of those frequently mentioned laws include “Court attention at all costs,” “Crush your enemy totally,” “Learn to keep people dependent on you,” and “Pose as a friend, work as a spy.”

He also wrote other popular books drawing on the same formula of turning to the past and historic examples to shine relevance on the present and also on achieving success.

Greene’s works also include The Art of Seduction (2004), The 33 Strategies of War (2007), The 50th Law (2009) that involved collaboration with rapper 50 Cent, and more recently Mastery (2012). Greene is a man clearly on a mission. I recommend anyone who is interested in organizational behavior or simply how to get along better with a rival or coworker read one of his works.

Rebooting those ‘stale’ classics and lessons of history

The 48 Laws of Power, in essence, reboots the well-read and well-studied writings of Niccolò Machiavelli, historic Chinese military strategists like Sun Tzu, and tactics of leaders such as Prussian leader Otto von Bismarck. These are texts and persons that liberal arts majors by the hundreds of thousands have studied, yet few others have stitched together to have such contemporary modern relevance for everyone’s day-to-day life. As someone who has read many of these classic works and who studied history, nothing here is new to me, and thus not surprising.

Having sold well over a million copies of The 48 Laws of Power alone, Greene is today the subject of professional jealousy from those who have not achieved his notoriety and also praise from those who practice his stratagems that have appeared repeatedly in history. (This is just one of many summaries of those laws found online, and they are worth downloading and reviewing.)

Some professional groups, like the American Public Health Association, even published the laws of power, and quizzically asked public health leaders, “So, now that you’ve read the laws, how appropriate are they for you, as a health care administrator?” Having worked in the field, I can assure you many of these laws most certainly apply to public health bureaucracies and managerial aspirants in them who are more obsessed with power games and personal ambition than with promoting public health. But this is not news to anyone, in any profession.

As Greene told the LA Times in 2011, “These laws … people might say, ‘Oh they’re wicked.’ They’re practiced day in and day out by businesspeople. You’re always trying to get rid of your competition and it can be pretty bloodthirsty, and that’s just the reality.”

48 Laws of Power, by Robert Greene

The 48 Laws of Power

The ‘dark side’ or the ‘real side’?

Consider Greene’s dark view in the opening to The 48 Laws of Power. “If the world is like a giant scheming court and we are trapped inside it, there is no use in trying to opt out of the game. That will only render you powerless, and powerlessness will make you miserable. Instead of struggling against the inevitable, instead of arguing and whining and feeling guilty, it is far better to excel at power. In fact, the better you are at dealing with power, the better friend, lover, husband, wife, and person you become.”

For Greene, The 48 Laws of Power was a personal journey that built upon his fascination with Greek and Roman history, and the lessons drawn from that era. In Greene’s case, his failures in Hollywood led him to attempt to duplicate Julius Caesar’s crossing of the Rubicon River to launch a civil war against his rival Pompeii (dramatized brilliantly in the HBO miniseries Rome).

A statue of Julius Caesar in Rome (taken in 2006). Like Caesar, Greene also had to cross his Rubicon to achieve mastery and success.

A statue of Julius Caesar in Rome (taken in 2006). Like Caesar, Greene also had to cross his Rubicon to achieve mastery and success.

Greene notes how he arrived at his own Rubicon to reboot the tired, old classics into a modern bible for aspiring climbers and those trying to cope with amoral people and broken organizations: “My situation is much less intense, but I will follow Caesar and not only write the proposal, but take three months to do it right. I would have to borrow the money and cut my ties with the film world. As Caesar revealed to me, the more I had to lose, the harder I would work. The treatment turned into the best-selling The 48 Laws of Power and represents the turning point in my life.”

For those who are not familiar with history or its lessons, they may be missing Greene’s larger and longer long view of human history and behaviors that transcend time and culture. He told Forbes that his secret goal is to make “reading, studying the classics and philosophy something hip, so that young people were inspired to step away from the TV and the Internet and challenge their minds, rethink the world and return to our origins.”

We already knew a lot about the laws of power

When I posted a section of Greene’s writing on my Facebook page, describing people who are psychopathic and display passive aggression to the point of becoming warriors at this art, one of my colleagues responded, “OMG. If this does not describe one of my co-workers, I don’t know what does. Thank you for this.”

For me, many things Greene discusses have been well trodden by writers from William Shakespeare to Mark Twain, and anyone who has worked as a news reporter knows the realities that always lie beneath the surface veneer, particularly among those who exploit others and use power.

This is not to say students of history are cynics. Great students of history also are great leaders, notably Abraham Lincoln, who used his deep knowledge of America’s founding fathers and the actual intent of the U.S. Constitution’s authors to persuade voters that they did not intend slavery to remain a permanent and immoral institution in the country. Lincoln’s passion for history and his knowledge of power and human ambitions in fact made him one of the greatest leaders ever.

Mastery, by Robert Greene

Mastery

Mastery takes a more optimistic tone

I was deeply impressed with Greene’s delightful 2012 book, Mastery. The book uses profiles of contemporary masters and historic “geniuses,” such as Charles Darwin, Albert Einstein, John Coltrane, Leonardo di Vinci, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and others. (Many examples, but not all, are white men.) Why did they break down barriers, have astounding creativity, and achieve brilliance that crossed boundaries of thought.

Greene’s answer lies in the deep, thoughtful, apprenticeship type work one does before one becomes a master. He shows that through this applied study, the most innovative work happens in sports, science, research, art, military endeavors, and more. For Greene, through an applied apprenticeship that normally lasts five to 10 years, learning real skills and innovative thinking occur at the neural level, where great insight comes from.

“The goal of an apprenticeship is not money, a good position, a title, or a diploma, but rather the transformation of your mind and character—the first transformation on the way to mastery,” he writes. These involve three modes:

  • Step One: Deep Observation—the passive mode
  • Step Two: Skills Acquisition—the practice mode
  • Step Three: Experimentation—the active mode

During the acquisition mode, an apprentice will log at least 10,000 hours of practice, before charting his or her own course as a master. “This number has an almost magical or mystical resonance to it,” Greene writes. “It means qualitative change in the human brain. The mind has learned to organize and structure large amounts of information. With all of this tacit knowledge, it can now become creative and playful with it.”

For Greene, mastery is more than becoming simply proficient. This is about deep creativity and achieving one’s life purpose, which he suggests is a challenge that will confront most of us. “No good can ever come from deviating from the path that you were destined to follow. You will be assailed by varieties of hidden pain. Most often you deviated because of the lure of money, or more immediate prospects of prosperity. … Not seeing clearly ahead of you, you will end up in a dead-end career. … There is no compromise there, no way of escaping the dynamic. You will recognize how far you have deviated by the depth of your pain and frustration.”

The answer, according to Greene, lies in pursuing the path used by masters time and again, which he acknowledges is full of challenges and pleasures. “Make your return to the path a resolution you set for yourself, and then tell others about it,” writes Greene. “It becomes a matter of shame and embarrassment to deviate from this path. In the end, the money and success that truly last come not to those who focus on such things as goals, but rather to those who focus on mastery and fulfilling their life’s task.”

Franklin’s lesson in power and mastery

According to Robert Greene, Benjamin Franklin was a master who had great social intelligence.

According to Robert Greene, Benjamin Franklin was a master who had great social intelligence.

One the masters cited by Greene is Benjamin Franklin, because he was an innovative inventor, writer, and businessman who possessed great social intelligence. Greene shows that this latter skill is absolutely key to becoming successful and a master. Franklin is also one of my many role models. He excelled at nearly everything he did and had amazing people skills that always left a positive impression, like influential people I have known in my life.

Clearly, Franklin was one who learned about power well, in the most classic sense. Greene notes that as a young man, Franklin was terribly duped by Pennsylvania’s governor when he went to England and found himself practically penniless, without promised letters of introduction.

A copy of the daily schedule of Benjamin Franklin.

Franklin thought deeply and then grew. He resolved never to make an error of character judgment again and think about a man’s intentions carefully before making a response. And he always resolved to work at building his networks and turning enemies into allies, if possible. It worked time and again as he kept having success after success, but after great work and careful deep thought. Greene also shows that Franklin, as a master, also always stayed curious, and some say youthful until his 80s. The rest is, as they say, history.

Franklin perhaps is a Machiavellian case study in early American power, by becoming a revolutionary, co-author of the Declaration of Independence, and “founding father.” But by achieving excellence through the path of apprentice to master, he became much more.

On my wall, I have hanging a clip from Franklin’s daily planning calendar. On one side, he wrote the question for the morning: “What good shall I do this day?” For the evening hours, his calendar ended with the evening question, “What good have I done today.”

 

 

A World Cup for the ages, with good old fashioned teamwork

Even four days after the best World Cup final I have ever seen, I am still brimming with the euphoria that only seems to accompany el jogo bonito (the beautiful game) in its finest form. What a spectacle it is. Teams from 32 nations around the planet vie for supremacy of being called the world’s best team. Remember that word, T-E-A-M.

Germany’s relatively small-sized but experienced captain, Philipp Lahm, captured it best after the final game against Argentina. “It’s unbelievable what we have achieved,” said the Bayern Munich defender. “Whether we have the best individual player doesn’t matter at all, you just need to have the best team.”

This Tweet was widely re-Tweeted after Germany crushed Brazil 7-1.

This Tweet was widely re-Tweeted after Germany crushed Brazil 7-1.

A great shot published on game day of the victors.

A great shot published on game day of the victors celebrating their win in the biggest sporting event in the world.

I watched more matches than I planned to, and found myself swept away, as always, in the massive melodrama that captures the world’s attention every four years. This year was no exception.

Uruguayan Luis Suarez bit an Italian opponent like a zombie.

The host team lost in the biggest knockout-round blowout ever in the Cup, 7-1, to winners Germany after its star player, Neymar, had his back broken.

One nation, Cameroon, was alleged to have thrown a game. And of course there were countless displays of sheer athletic brilliance like goals scored by Colombia’s James Rodriguez and would-be goals blocked by U.S. keeper Tim Howard.

More than a game … a social media spectacle of historic proportions

An Internet meme beautifully shows how U.S. keeper Tim Howard blocked the goals.

An Internet meme beautifully shows how U.S. keeper Tim Howard blocked the goals against Belgium.

It is estimated the final match that saw Germany top Argentina in a 1-0 nail-biter decided in the 113th minute drew about 26 million viewers in the United States. In Germany, about 35 million fans watched the game on TV, not to mention public viewing areas. Globally, around the world about 1 billion may have watched, but I suspect the number was higher. I doubt they count small bars in rural China and Africa and other remote spots.

Mario Gotze scores the winning goal against Argentina, as shown in possibly the penultimate game photo of the tournament.

Mario Gotze scores the winning goal against Argentina, as shown in possibly the penultimate game photo of the tournament.

And what a great final game it was, with a brilliant end.  Germany’s André Schürrle darted down the sideline and sent a perfect cross to teammate and fellow late-game sub Mario Götze. Super Mario trapped the volley with his chest and blasted the ball to the side of the net. GOOAAAAALLLLLLL!!!!!!!!!

Where I was watching the game in Seattle at a neighborhood center, half the room went nuts, with orgiastic screaming. Half the room cheering for a great Argentina side fell stunned silent. That is pure World Cup emotion, and there is absolutely nothing else like it in the world. Period.

Some researchers have said events like soccer have a hormonal factor in a brain peptide, oxytocin, that research shows promotes positive intersocial relations. It is called the “love hormone” because it makes people like one another, especially in intimate relationships like mother and child. Research shows that players’ exhibitions of emotions like happiness and confidence, as in after a great play or goal, can be contagious, when a person’s excitement  triggers biochemical reactions in onlookers’ brains.

That is precisely what happened at the same moment around the globe when everyone watching the game on TV and giant screens saw the emotions on the German team members’ faces after the goal.

Bam, oxytocin discharge, followed by social media frenzy.

Social media globally turned into a raging wildfire. Twitter sent more than 600,000 Tweets a minute after the match on July 13 and more than 670 million Tweets by the next day, more than ever before in its short history. On Facebook, there were 280 million interactions such as posts, likes, and comments—the most for a sports event.

It was a sports event and a social media happening of historic proportions at the same time. Small wonder German Chancellor Angela Merkel was at the stadium hugging the sweating German team one by one, and even posed for a selfie with starter Lukas Podolski, and soon that Tweet blasted around the world.

Podolski tweeted this selfie of him and the German leader right after the game, in a Tweet seen 'round the world.

Lukas Podolski tweeted this selfie of him and the German leader right after the game, in a Tweet seen ’round the world.

So it is no boast the singularly most important global event of the past month was the Cup, despite all of the raging conflicts that continued during its course. People the world over adore it, and go crazy over it, and weep and moan over like, like the entire 200-million-person host nation of Brazil did after the German team brutalized the host team 7-1 in the semi-final blowout that was a record-breaker of historic proportions.

Why the game is great, and the Cup is greater

Professionally, the game is easy to grasp. It has simple rules, a 100 meter pitch, three referees, and 22 men making up two teams who are fiercely competing for the title of best national team on the planet during Cup time. I love the Cup because it, more than anything else, is a common denominator that I have with someone in remote Greenland; and Munich, Germany; and Kampala, Uganda; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. No matter where I go, I can always talk about the Cup, and I will have a well of good feelings and excitement to draw upon.

This is one of the best shots after the game: Lionel Messi of Argentina is consoled by Germany’s Bastian Schweinsteiger.

What I most liked about this year’s final game was the near-perfect match of two really outstanding teams.

On one side, you had the world’s greatest player, forward Lionel Messi of the elite club Barcelona, who was surrounded by a team that got stronger and more cohesive as the tournament progressed. They were matched by Germany, which lacked the flash and brilliance of Messi, but who had perfected what football commentators called a system of teamwork and cohesion. (Granted this system is strongly supported by the nation’s football federation.)

In fact, the two best teams showed up in the Maracana stadium, and both played great team soccer.

Passing was strong, there were not many dirty tackles, and both sides had great scoring chances, only to see them squandered. Argentina actually blew three golden opportunities, including one by Messi inside the box, with no one close enough to shut him down. With the exception of two horrible concussions during the game, one to each side that later forced commentators to blast FIFA’s system and led to many calling the contest the “Concussion Cup,” the game was without flops or debilitating injuries.

Despite the excesses and corruption of the world football governing body known as FIFA, for me, Brazil’s 2014 Cup was a great reinforcing example of the power of teamwork.

Organizational behavior theorists have long championed Naval researcher Bruce Tuckman’s famous four stages of group performance from his seminal 1965 article (Development Sequence in Small Groups): forming, storming, norming, and performing. When groups are clicking as a unit, they can achieve well above their own individual abilities and, if really good, as in high-stakes activity like conflict and sport, achieve greatness and victory.

As someone who played soccer most of my life from youth to middle-age, I can attest to the power of teamwork and how effectively groups with lesser abilities can overcome better opponents who do not have that cohesion.

The ultimate team player, Miroslav Klose of Germany

Germany had the team magic. It was obvious the whole tournament. There were great plays by the German team stars like Thomas Müller, even very great plays like Götze’s winning blast, but all of the German team members contributed to their success. The perfect example was forward Miroslav Klose, 36, and veteran of four World Cups and likely the most underrated player in the world. He scored two in the Cup, both lovely.

In the victory over Brazil, the “poacher” scored his 16th Cup goal (see all here), more than any other player in the history of the Cup. He did it as he always did, getting great service from his teammate, and always following up when his first shot was blocked.

Klose scores his 16th World Cup goal against Ghana, a record and a lasting tribute to a great team player.

This photo captures a perfect moment: forward Miroslav Klose scores his 16th World Cup goal against Brazil, a record and a lasting tribute to a great team player.

Klose is not pretty. He is not charismatic. He does not smile often, and he is a quiet family guy. In fact, his lack of flash allows defenders not to respect his killer instinct as a finisher. Most of all he has succeeded in making history by being part of a great team that worked relentlessly at being the best at what it did, and then did it in the highest possible stakes game there is in the world.

My hat is off to the German, and Argentinean, teams. Thanks for making this Cup memorable and for showing how two great teams play the best game in the world.

The 10th man, zombie apocalypses, and incorporating contrarian views

I recently saw the Brad Pitt zombie action vehicle, World War Z.

Brad Pitt goes toe-to-toe with the zombies and saves humanity in his public health swashbuckler, World War Z. Way to go, Brad!

Brad Pitt goes toe-to-toe with the zombies and saves humanity in his public health swashbuckler, World War Z. Way to go, Brad!

It is actually not a bad zombie apocalypse movie, as zombie apocalypse movies go. Brad saves earth, and a lot chattering, undead humans get shot and blown up. It also is a fairly straightforward public health film, which foretells horrific calamity to humans because of some possible viral outbreak that could kill much of humanity. (If you are not worried about this, then perhaps read up on the recent Ebola virus outbreak this is causing legitimate fear and even panic in West Africa.)

This narrative, of course, is nothing new. Some great cinematic predecessors include Omega Man, I Am Legend, 28 Days Later, Contagion, The 10 Commandments (assuming the angel of death that passed over the Jews in slavery might have been a killer virus), Children of Men (a personal favorite of mine), The Andromeda Strain, and much more.

Though I have no data to back up this claim, I am guessing more people around the world have learned about viruses and the threats they can pose to population and human health from such films than anything ever produced by a national or government health agency.

I also believe that public health advocates need to fully embrace the “Brad Pitt saves the world from zombies” approach and copy it, and also use such storytelling techniques to mobilize public understanding of public health issues, from the importance of vaccinations to the woeful underfunding of public health in the United States.

Can the 10th man save public health and humanity?

What I most liked about WWZ was its exploration of the concept of the 10th man, which is used by Israel’s security apparatus.

In the film, Israel had prepared for a zombie apocalypse because it had institutionalized a non-consensus decision-making safeguard. A Mossad security official character, Jurgen Warmbrunn, explains to Pitt’s hero that because of Israel’s pre-nationhood and post-nationhood catastrophes, including the Holocaust and the Yom Kippur War, one person in a decision-making group has to take the contrarian view if all nine of the others reach consensus. In Israel’s experience, failure to do so could lead to extinction. Then that person, the 10th man, must put the alternative view forward, with the larger goal of promoting the interests of the organization, country, or collective. That is why Israel in the film was ready for the zombie horde. (Click on the video snapshot below to see the clip on YouTube.)

10th Man Clip

In science, this happens all the time. Scientists and statisticians do this by attacking the null hypothesis that seeks to disprove their theory they believe to be true.

But I am more interested these days in how this may work in organizations outside of intelligence circles and defense, where mistakes can cost many lives and national security, and how organizations can incorporate 10th man decision-making. Can the contrarian view be protected and even respected in organizations that do not allow for rigorous debate about choices that have implications for the public’s well-being?

Kill the messenger and avoid demonstrating leadership?

We know the popular legend of the archetypal messenger who loses his head when he brings bad news to the king. I was a newspaper reporter, and I have lived this in a mild way, having been threatened with a lawsuit by a corrupt community leader and vilified by autocratic public officials who wanted to have their malfeasance remain hidden. A new movie called Kill the Messenger, focusing on drug running by the Nicaraguan Contras during the Reagan presidency, explores this issue in-depth.

Italian physicist and mathematician Galileo was deemed a heretic and tried for his promotion of the Copnernican view that the earth orbits the sun and that the earth is not the center of the universe.

Italian physicist and mathematician Galileo was deemed a heretic and tried for his promotion of the Copnernican or heliocentric view that the earth orbits the sun and that the earth is not the center of the universe.

In fact, the phrase “kill the messenger” is known and understood globally, and for good reason. Many people know that organizations and human nature prevent good people from offering alternative views that challenge authority and orthodoxy. Some like Galileo, who offered a view the earth was not the center of the universe, turned human understanding of man and God on its head, and he was ex-communicated and not forgiven for more than four centuries by the Catholic Church.

So how can organizations, like public agencies such as health departments, create safe environments to allow for alternative views to flourish, for the purpose of improving decision-making internally. This is no easy fit, as these are hierarchical by design, and I have yet to hear how alternative decision-making works in them in a real-word basis.

In organizational theory, Peter Senge’s so-called “learning organizations” may be a model, but that is not really the built-in acceptance of a 10th man contrarian. Of course CEOs, companies, and consultants aplenty try to allow contrarian views because the endgame for them is profit maximization and success of the firm. In the world of intelligence gathering and organizational behavior. failure has been dubbed “group think.”

Getting back to our popular public health film trope, the zombies

Personally, I would love to see public health agencies, top to bottom, hire and fund the bright and brilliant artists who are creating manga comics and who are making manga comic-styled videos. And it is no surprise some manga comic artists have been hired and there are positive results. I have seen one video already, produced by the outfit called the Global Health Media Project. The group published a gritty portrayal of how lethal cholera can be, as a means to promote global education against its spread. You can watch the video below by clicking on the image.

The Story of Cholera

What would a campaign that promoted immunizations and targeted the promoters of anti-vaccination deniers look like if it were entrusted to artists who can tell riveting stories linked to movies, like the three clips below that accompany Will Smith’s I Am Legend zombie apocalypse thriller?

Check them out and see what you think–click on each screen snapshot to see clips on YouTube. Would there need to be a 10th man pitching these ideas inside the proverbial boardroom saying this would be a better investment of prevention dollars than methods that may have yielded no measurable results, ever?

 

I Am Legend Manga Extra 1

I Am Legend Manga Extra 2

I Am Legend Manga Extra 3

A few thoughts on management, leadership, and the greatest of ‘em all, Abe Lincoln

About two years ago, I was tasked with doing a summary of the essential differences between management and leadership. This is one of the great topics in all of management and organizational behavior literature. Walls of books line bookshelves by experts from every field, from sports to defense to business.

This difference impacts all of us, because the effects of good or bad leadership filter down to all of us, either as government policy or work environments, or in extreme cases, life and death outcomes as seen in conflicts raging in Syria, South Sudan, and other troubled areas.

As someone working in public health, I am acutely aware how this woefully underfunded field needs inspirational leaders to tackle the challenges posed by public health threats, but also to inspire and steer public thinking and win support for greater public health funding.

Without strong leaders, from small agencies to leading scientists to figureheads like the U.S. Surgeon General (see my post that touches on how Dr. C. Everett Koop set the standard), the profession may continue to be relegated to third-tier funding status in federal budget priorities and not gain greater acceptance by a wider majority of Americans. (Note to my international readers, I am writing this post with an American context.)

With management and leadership issues very much on mind this past week because of some interesting developments I have observed, I have decided to publish a short summary document I did on this topic two years ago focussing on Abraham Lincoln as an example. He continues to inspire me, even when I hit roadblocks and get discouraged. And isn’t that what good leaders do, inspire?

“Towering genius distains a beaten path. It seeks regions hitherto unexplored.” Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln is the most written-about American and also considered the greatest citizen this country has ever produced. He exemplified many of the traits that today's theorists consider to be those of a highly inspirational and effective leader.

Abraham Lincoln is the most written-about American and also considered the greatest citizen this country has ever produced. He exemplified many of the traits that today’s theorists consider to be those of a highly inspirational and effective leader.

What Is Management and Who Are Managers:

Management has been defined as “the art of using all available resources to accomplish a given set of tasks in a timely and economical manner.” Management provides the basis for the system of control needed to maintain and operate an organization. It is also about getting things done through others and delegating work. Managers motivate employees to accomplish tasks with a variety of tools (intrinsic or extrinsic awards).

Typical Management Activities:

- Planning, decision-making, organizing, staffing, directing/actuating (the process of leading through teaching), directing, and controlling (determining what the organization does in relation to its mission).

Management Theories:

- “Classic” management theory, dating back to the 1950s and 1960s, suggests managers have to rely less on technical skills and more on conceptual skills the more senior rank they hold. However, in the down economy as our class’s manager interviews found, managers at higher levels in lean organizations still have a lot of technical skills because they are doing a lot of frontline/skills-related activities.

- Classic models: Henry Mintzberg’s “10 managerial roles” (informational, interpersonal, and decision), similar to Robert Katz’s “skills of an effective administrator”  (technical, human, conceptual).

Scott Adams extremely insightful comic strip Dilbert captures an essence of management that likely resonates with millions of workers who find themselves led by those who fall short, very short of is well-document as being a good leader. Go to Adams' web site for more of his great work: http://www.dilbert.com.

Scott Adams’ extremely insightful comic strip Dilbert captures an essence of management that likely resonates with millions of workers who find themselves led by those who fall short, actually very short, of what is well-documented as being a good leader. Go to Adams’ web site for more of his great work: http://www.dilbert.com.

Management vs. Leadership:

Managers marshal resources to achieve the vision of others, and if they are good, help each person cultivate their talents and grow. Leaders are “visionaries, strategic thinkers, activators.” A talented few may excel at both.

Managers: rely on analysis and rationality, stress conformity, more like scientists, project power over people, seek obedience, emulate other successful managers/leaders.

Leaders: envision, rely on intuition, have self-confidence and take risks, project power with people, are creative and spontaneous, emphasize team building, explore new possibilities, inspire people to follow their vision.

Key Characteristic of Great Leaders: Emotional Intelligence (the principal theorist of this theory is Daniel Goleman):

  • Self-Awareness: Ability to recognize one’s emotions and their effects.
  • Self-Regulation: Ability to think before acting and suppress disruptive moods.
  • Motivation: A passion for the work beyond salary or status. Optimism, commitment, drive to do better.
  • Empathy: Ability to understand people’s emotions and treat them accordingly.
  • Social Skill: Good at building relationships and networks, finding common ground.

Leadership: Innate Ability Helpful, Practice Is Essential

Management experts debate if leadership is innate or learned; research suggests the latter. But innate traits such as drive, desire to lead, integrity, intelligence, and skill make it more likely that an individual will become a leader but are not the only factors in play. Research has shown that individuals can develop their leadership skills if they are given the right opportunities and mentored.
- Leadership as Innate: Intelligence and technical skill are key, and both are at least partially determined by genetics. Emotional intelligence—main predictor—tends to run in families and be greatly influenced by personality and childhood experience.
- Leadership as Learned: Businesses believe leaders can be created and invest a lot of time and money to identify and train individuals to assume leadership positions.
Transactional Leaders, focus on meeting organizational goals. Make adjustments as needed to complete tasks for group.
Transformational Leaders use personality/relations with followers to inspire the team to go above and beyond expectations. They are defined by charisma, vision, integrity, symbolism.

Abraham Lincoln, the Embodiment of Strong Leadership:

  • Lincoln Model, Emotional Intelligence: By the time he had become President, Lincoln had mastered his emotions and exercised great control by not sending “hot letters.” When the time came for action, he acted decisively, but only after deep analysis of the full situation. His greatest asset was his astounding empathy to understand his rivals, allies, and especially his opponents, including the slaveholding South. He was also a beloved storyteller and well-liked and admired by his peers. Lincoln also learned from missteps and made amends with opponents when victorious, and he did not carry personal grudges. He was driven to have a life that fulfilled a higher purpose and to preserve the Union—a nation he believed that had great future promise.
  • Lincoln Model, Learned Leadership: With just one year of schooling, Lincoln embodied personal drive and self-learning, as well as integrity. Lincoln spent years practicing his craft, in Whig party politics and then in the Illinois Legislature. He lost to his then-more renown rival Stephen Douglas in a U.S. Senate bid in 1856. He then won a brokered convention of the Republican Party in 1860, held in Chicago, after becoming the foremost speaker on the greatest issue of his day, the expansion of slavery. He credited the assistance of many benefactors and friends for believing in him and helping him rise to political prominence.
  • Lincoln Model, Not One Style of Leadership: Lincoln mixed authoritarianism (suspending the writ of habeas corpus, etc.) as a wartime president, but had a democratic style with his cabinet (his “Team of Rivals,” the most capable politicians of his day he personally recruited). He was transformational; his peers recognized his greatness, inspiring them to work harder.